DCE-MRI and IVIM-MRI of rabbit Vx2 tumors treated with MR-HIFU-induced mild hyperthermia

Lam-De Wit, Miekee, Oerlemans, Chris, Froeling, Martijn, Deckers, RHR, Barten-Van Rijbroek, Angelique D., Viergever, Max A, Moonen, Chrit T W, Bos, Clemens, Bartels, Lambertus W.


Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound [E] 4 (9),


BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether changes could be detected in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR parameters upon MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU)-induced hyperthermia in a rabbit Vx2 tumor model.

METHODS: Five Vx2 tumor-bearing New Zealand white rabbits were treated with hyperthermia using a clinical MR-HIFU system. Data were acquired before and after hyperthermia. For the DCE analysis, the extended Tofts model was used. For the IVIM analysis, a Bayesian approach was used. Maps were reconstructed of the DCE parameters (K (trans), k ep, and v p ) and IVIM parameters (D t , f p , and D p ). Individual parameter histograms and two-dimensional cross-correlation histograms were constructed to analyze changes in the parameters after hyperthermia. Changes in median values were tested for statistical significance with the Mann-Whitney U test.

RESULTS: The MR temperature measurements confirmed that mild hyperthermia (40 to 42 °C) was successfully achieved in all rabbits. One rabbit died during treatment and was excluded from the analysis. In the remaining four rabbits, an increase in D t was observed. In three rabbits, an increase in K (trans) was observed, while in the other rabbits, all three DCE parameter values decreased. Mixed changes were seen for v p and f p .

CONCLUSIONS: Changes in DCE and IVIM parameters were detected after hyperthermia and were variable between the rabbits. DCE- and IVIM-MRI may be promising tools to assess tumor responses to hyperthermia. Further research in a larger number of subjects is necessary in order to assess their value for treatment response monitoring.