MR-based source localization for MR-guided HDR brachytherapy

Beld, Ellis, Moerland, Marinus A, Zijlstra, Frank, Viergever, Max A, Lagendijk, Jan J W, Seevinck, Peter R


Physics in Medicine and Biology 63 (8),


For the purpose of MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a method for real-time localization of an HDR brachytherapy source was developed, which requires high spatial and temporal resolutions. MR-based localization of an HDR source serves two main aims. First, it enables real-time treatment verification by determination of the HDR source positions during treatment. Second, when using a dummy source, MR-based source localization provides an automatic detection of the source dwell positions after catheter insertion, allowing elimination of the catheter reconstruction procedure. Localization of the HDR source was conducted by simulation of the MR artifacts, followed by a phase correlation localization algorithm, applied to the MR images and the simulated images, to determine the position of the HDR source in the MR images. To increase the temporal resolution of the MR acquisition, the spatial resolution was decreased, and a subpixel localization operation was introduced. Furthermore, parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding) was applied to further decrease the MR scan time. The localization method was validated by a comparison with CT, and the accuracy and precision were investigated. The results demonstrated that the described method could be used to determine the HDR source position with a high accuracy (0.4-0.6 mm) and a high precision (≤0.1 mm), at high temporal resolutions (0.15-1.2 s per slice). This would enable real-time treatment verification as well as an automatic detection of the source dwell positions.