A Dual-layer Detector for Simultaneous Fluoroscopic and Nuclear Imaging

van der Velden, Sandra, Kunnen, Britt, Koppert, Wilco J C, Steenbergen, Johannes H L, Dietze, Martijn M A, Beijst, Casper, Viergever, Max A, Lam, Marnix G E H, de Jong, Hugo W A M


Radiology 290 (3), p. 833-838


Purpose To develop and evaluate a dual-layer detector capable of acquiring intrinsically registered real-time fluoroscopic and nuclear images in the interventional radiology suite. Materials and Methods The dual-layer detector consists of an x-ray flat panel detector placed in front of a γ camera with cone beam collimator focused at the x-ray focal spot. This design relies on the x-ray detector absorbing the majority of the x-rays while it is more transparent to the higher energy γ photons. A prototype was built and dynamic phantom images were acquired. In addition, spatial resolution and system sensitivity (evaluated as counts detected within the energy window per second per megabecquerel) were measured with the prototype. Monte Carlo simulations for an improved system with varying flat panel compositions were performed to assess potential spatial resolution and system sensitivity. Results Experiments with the dual-layer detector prototype showed that spatial resolution of the nuclear images was unaffected by the addition of the flat panel (full width at half maximum, 13.6 mm at 15 cm from the collimator surface). However, addition of the flat panel lowered system sensitivity by 45%-60% because of the nonoptimized transmission of the flat panel. Simulations showed that an attenuation of 27%-35% of the γ rays in the flat panel could be achieved by decreasing the crystal thickness and housing attenuation of the flat panel. Conclusion A dual-layer detector was capable of acquiring real-time intrinsically registered hybrid images, which could aid interventional procedures involving radionuclides. Published under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Online supplemental material is available for this article.