The time to progression ratio: A new individualized volumetric parameter for the early detection of clinical benefit of targeted therapies

Cirkel, G. A., Weeber, F., Bins, S., Gadellaa-van Hooijdonk, C. G M, van Werkhoven, E., Willems, S. M., van Stralen, M., Veldhuis, W. B., Ubink, I., Steeghs, N., de Jonge, M. J., Langenberg, M. H G , Schellens, J. H M, Sleijfer, S., Lolkema, M. P., Voest, Emile E.


Annals of Oncology 27 (8), p. 1638-1643


Background: Early signs of efficacy are critical in drug development. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are commonly used to determine the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy in clinical trials. RECIST, however, emphasizes the value of tumor shrinkage, while many targeted agents induce prolonged tumor growth arrest. This limits its use for the detection of treatment efficacy for these more cytostatic regimens. Therefore, we designed an individualized variant of a time to progression (TTP) end point based on prospective volumetric measurements and an intra-patient control, the TTP ratio. Patients and methods: Patients with any metastatic malignancy, without regular treatment options, were treated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Treatment response was determined using both RECIST and the TTP ratio. The TTP ratio was defined as the volumetric pretreatment TTP divided by the volumetric on-treatment TTP. A patient was classified as a responder if the TTP ratio was